It's my first day of work, but I want to quit the job already. Is it possible?

2017.01.10 update
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You can quit the job immediately if your employer agree

Under the civil law in Japan, worker is allowed to request to terminate the employment contract to employer anytime if there are no period of employment is defined in the contract.

This means, A part-time worker whose period of employment is not defined is allowed to request his/her employer to quit the job, and is able to leave immediately if both sides agree. Even both sides can't agree, a worker is free from obligation of his/her duty (a worker doesn't need to work) 2 weeks after the date of request

However, many employer set their own rules for quitting such as 1 month pre-notice. It is better to ask your employer beforehand their rule.
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If your period of employment is defined

If your job has defined period of employment under the contract you are obligated to follow the contract. Even you follow the civil law, you may be asked for compensation due to the damage you caused to the employer by your unilateral resignation.
If you want to quit your job within your period of employment, you should discuss with your employer to seek agreement.

Summary

If your part-time job doesn't have any defined period of employment, you are able to quit immediately if you agreed with your employer after you request. Even your employer doesn't agree, you don't need to work 2 weeks after the date of your request.

If your part-time job defines your period of employment and you want to quite during the period, you should discuss with your employer to seek agreement.

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